Marketing & Positioning Target
A target in marketing is a set of buyers and potential players, who are sought to win and / or retain through marketing actions, after achieving segmentation . This is the subject of a targeting policy .
Targeting is therefore about evaluating the relative attractiveness of each segment and choosing those on which the company will focus its efforts. This process involves several steps:
Assess the relative attractiveness of each segment of the population where there is potential demand; and the types of products and services that can be offered to these segments
Choose those on which the company will focus its efforts, consistent with its objectives, skills and resources.
- Build the necessary operations to reach, win or retain each target, and in total make the most of it in terms of business volumes, market share , and profitability.
- Targeting is one of the new tools of economic influence aimed at guiding individual choices (and collective via groups of individuals) through behavioral marketing , it poses in particular emerging issues such as:
- The increased risk of manipulation of vulnerable groups and persons : children, elderly, mentally handicapped, indebted people
- Increased and increasing risk of privacy intrusion
The risk of misuse of data concerning the privacy of individuals, or concerning interests, purchases, etc. associations or groups that may be so monitored or directed by totalitarian states, mafias, sects, unfriendly competitors, etc.
“Who should we serve? Is a question that every business must ask itself regularly. Customers often differ a lot depending on their needs. They also differ in terms of value they can bring to the business. Companies need to be selective in targeting segments if they want to develop effective relationships with customers. Adapting customers to the company’s capabilities is vital 17( * ) .
“No brand can stand on the market with products or services that look like any other. It must define a positioning based on one or more distinctive axes
Positioning consists of designing an offer adapted to the chosen target and developing the corresponding marketing mix. Positioning is the choice of attributes that provide offers (products, brands or brands) with a credible, different and attractive position within a market and in the minds of customers. It takes all offers into account and lists the marketing strategy as a business strategy if the organization has to use a limited number of business lines (Strategic Business Areas). The positioning of an offer helps, unsurprisingly, to better sell on given segments of the market by differentiating or on the contrary by substituting competing products.
The positioning is the stage following that of logically determining the strategy segmentation. This strategy distinguishes different audiences in a market and targets those whom the company wants to address in particular. Positioning is the next and complementary step in the construction of a marketing strategy because it reflects the way the company wants to be perceived by the target audience .
The positioning reflects a choice: “we give up certain customers and certain positions in the market to make its offer more attractive and stronger with other customers, on another part of the market”.
Positioning seeks to make the offer permanent in the customer’s mind. However, changing the perception of the customer is very expensive; it is therefore better to adapt to it. In other words, the positioning is often constrained. A positioning is perceived in communication or advertising, but it is in all dimensions of an offer that perceives the customer ( product , price , distribution and communication policy ) that the positioning must act.
The positioning therefore creates a universe of reference, or it inserts, for innovative and values differentiating (aesthetic, functional, technical, philosophical, semiotic, ergonomic, mercatiques …) 19( * ) . Supply must be perceived as credible, different and attractive in the minds of customers compared to those of competitors. The message must be clear, simple and concise.
Positioning allows customers to identify an offer to a category of products or universe of reference and to differentiate this offer from that of competitors. The golden triangle of positioning allows to synthesize and validate a positioning by ensuring that the chosen positioning:
- Meet the expectations of the target audience: attractiveness
- Corresponds to the potential strengths of the public: credibility
- Differentiates from the positioning of competitors: difference
- The axes of differentiation are numerous:
- Positioning on attributes and product performance (Ex: Duracell batteries last longer)
- Positioning on the imaginary of the product or brand (Ex: Vitell gives you vitality)
- Positioning on the target audiences (Kiri is the children’s cheese)
- Positioning on a mode of use or situations of consumption (Ex: Isostar is the drink of the effort).
Good positioning is simple, clear and concise : Overly complex positioning is unlikely to be retained by customers and is difficult to communicate between marketing departments. Ideally, a positioning must be able to express itself in a sentence in which every word must be weighed. This sentence should not be confused with a slogan that is an advertising expression.
A good positioning is attractive, credible and singular : we find in these conditions of funds, the triangle of positioning.
A good positioning is economically profitable : an economic potential, sufficiently substantial for the company must be by opting for a positioning on a market.
A good positioning must be sustainable : affirming a positioning in the customer’s mind takes time and modifying it is a very delicate undertaking.
The positioning strategies are four in number 20( * ) (4):
Imitation strategy : here, it is to occupy the same place as a competing product.
Differentiation strategy : here, it is a question of adopting an original positioning, away from the competition.
Niche strategy : here, it is also a matter of choosing an original positioning, away from the competition by an action on differentiation, representing a weak but unexploited market potential.
Innovation strategy : here, it is a question of launching a product on a market segment in order to occupy a vacant place. We are looking for an answer to an unfulfilled expectation by competitors.
The positioning plays a pivotal role because it links the market analysis, competition and internal to the company 21( * ) . From these three (3) analyzes, the result is a positioning proposal that will allow the company to answer the following questions:
What is our product and / or service? (define and understand the relationships between market products)
Comparison to be established between the product and / or service and the offers of competition on specific elements
Correspondence between the performance of the product and / or service and the needs and expectations of consumers
Expected level of consumption
What do we want him to become? (identify market opportunities)
- Segments to target
- Redefinition (repositioning) of existing products
- Elimination of products that do not meet the needs of consumers
What actions must be taken to make it happen? (make marketing mix decisions to anticipate or respond to competitive moves)
- Distribution strategies
- Pricing strategies
- Communication strategies (targets, messages, means of communication)